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Optimize execution time of repeated commands

Optimiser l'exécution de commandes répétées


[1] Locally recompile the package from sources, could be any other package, hence command

[2] Prelink ELF shared libraries and binaries to speed up startup time


Downgrade .deb package with aptitude (force version)

Revenir à une version précédente d'un paquet Debian

Downgrading to an earlier Debian branch is not officially supported. Aptitude is able to compute downgrading dependancies.

aptitude install <pkg>=<version>


Mark package as manually installed

Marquer un paquet comme installé automatiquement

  • apt-mark : apt-mark manual <pkg>
  • aptitude : aptitude unmarkauto <pkg>


List manually installed package in Debian

Lister les paquets installés volontairement dans Debian

  • via apt-mark : apt-mark showmanual
  • via aptitude : aptitude search '~i!~M' -F '%p'


Install Firefox 57 (alias Quantum) on Debian stable Stretch

Installer Firefox 57 (alias Quantum) sur Debian stable Stretch

echo 'deb unstable main contrib non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
echo 'deb sid main contrib non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
echo 'deb experimental main contrib non-free' >> /etc/apt/sources.list
apt update
aptitude install firefox=57.0~b9-1
head -n -3 /etc/apt/sources.list > /tmp/sources.list
mv /tmp/sources.list /etc/sources.list

Debian dist-upgrade

Mise à jour majeure de GNU/Linux Debian. Exemple de Jessie à Stretch

apt update
apt upgrade
apt autoremove
vi /etc/apt/source.lst +:%s/jessie/stretch/gi +:wq
apt update
apt upgrade
apt dist-upgrade
apt autoremove
apt clean

cryptsetup: WARNING: invalid line in /etc/crypttab for luks-XX

If you get this message from cryptsetup instead of booting.
Si vous obtenez ce message et que votre machine ne démarre pas.

  1. cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda3 sda3_crypt [1]
  2. Apply chroot commands
  3. apt install lvm2 [2]
  4. update-initramfs -u [3]


[1] Open the LUKS container, sda3_crypt is the same name found in the last position in the file: /etc/crypttab

[2] If the package is missing. You can check that with: apt search lvm2 | grep --color "^lvm2"

[3] If you don't have the warning message, it's won !